BBC : Beate Zschäpe given life in German neo-Nazi murder trial

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Image copyright Reuters Image caption Beate Zschäpe was at the centre of one of the longest trials in modern German history

After a five-year trial, a member of a neo-Nazi gang has been found guilty of 10 racially-motivated murders.

Beate Zschäpe was the main defendant on trial over the murder of eight ethnic Turks, a Greek citizen and a policewoman between 2000 and 2007.

The verdict carries an automatic life sentence.

The connection between the murders was only discovered by chance in 2011, after a botched robbery led to the neo-Nazi group's discovery.

Zschäpe shared a flat in the eastern town of Zwickau with two men, who died in an apparent suicide pact. The bodies of Uwe Mundlos and Uwe Böhnhardt were found in a burnt-out caravan used in the robbery.

Zschäpe, Mundlos and Böhnhardt had formed a cell called the National Socialist Underground (NSU). An explosion at their home - apparently in an attempt to destroy evidence - led to Zschäpe turning herself in.

The NSU's seven-year campaign exposed serious shortcomings in the German state's monitoring of neo-Nazis, and led to a public inquiry into how police failed to discover the murder plot.

Four other defendants were also given jail terms for their role in helping the NSU gang:

  • Ralf Wohlleben, a former official of the far-right National Democratic Party (NPD), was sentenced to 10 years for procuring a Ceska pistol with silencer used in nine murders. He was convicted of aiding and abetting murder
  • Carsten S was given three years of juvenile detention. He is believed to have been a key contact for the Zwickau cell during their secret life, and was found guilty of handing the gang the Ceska pistol and silencer
  • André E was given two years and six months for helping a terrorist group. He had visited the Zwickau trio often, sometimes with his children, helping to give the neo-Nazis an air of normality
  • Holger G received three years for giving his birth certificate and other ID to Uwe Mundlos, to protect him from the police

Speaking ahead of the verdict, Zschäpe's defence lawyer said she would appeal the life sentence.

During the trial, Zschäpe denied taking part in the murders - but said she felt guilty for not doing more to stop them.

How did the murders continue for years?

The NSU case covers 10 murders, two bomb attacks in Cologne and 15 bank robberies.

The murder victims were mainly ethnic Turks, shot during their ordinary working days with a CZ 83 handgun over the course of seven years.

Police had long suspected that the killers were ethnic Turks in the victims' communities, earning them the nickname the "Bosphorus" murders after Istanbul's famous river. Another derogatory term, "doner murders" - in reference to kebabs - was used by some parts of Germany's press.

Neo-Nazi terror was overlooked, or perhaps deliberately ignored.

Image copyright German police handout Image caption German police photos of eight victims: (top, L-R) Enver Simsek, Abdurrahim Ozudogru, Suleyman Taskopru and Habil Kilic and (bottom, L-R) Yunus Turgut, Ismail Yasar, Theodorus Boulgarides and Mehmet Kubasik

Germany's fragmented policing system, with 16 different jurisdictions for the 16 states, may also have contributed to the intelligence failure.

One Greek victim, Theodoros Boulgarides, was also killed in 2005 in the same circumstances as the Turkish victims.

The final victim was Michèle Kiesewetter, a German policewoman, who was shot and killed while sitting in a patrol car on her break in 2007. Her partner - also shot in the head - survived.

The link between the murders - and a claim that the NSU carried out two bombings in Cologne - would only be discovered years later.

Unanswered questions

Jenny Hill, Berlin correspondent

Zschäpe was smiling and relaxed in the minutes before she was sentenced to life in prison. The 43 year old has spoken just twice during the five year long trial.

But while the guilty verdicts will likely be welcomed by the families of the victims, neither these proceedings nor a number of official enquiries have answered fundamental questions.

How and why did the killers select their victims?

And why did the German authorities - who relied on paid informants from within the neo-Nazi community and stand accused of institutionalised racism - seemingly do so little to protect them?

How was the NSU caught?

In 2011, an unusual DVD started circulating in Germany among some press outlets.

It showed the iconic cartoon character the Pink Panther in a doctored cartoon, which showed messages from the NSU about the murders, along with spliced footage of the bombings.

Image copyright Getty Images Image caption The neo-Nazis boasted about the murders in a "Pink Panther" confession video

On 4 November 2011, Mundlos and Böhnhardt robbed a bank in a German town, one of a string of similar heists. But this time, police were able to follow them to the caravan they had hidden in.

Despite being heavily armed, the pair did not put up any resistance- and were found dead inside. Investigators believe Mundlos shot Böhnhardt before killing himself.

Zschäpe, now the only surviving member of the NSU trio, apparently set fire to the apartment where all three had lived together in Zwickau. She turned herself in a few days later.

Image copyright Getty Images Image caption The neo-Nazi cell's burnt-out Zwickau home in November 2011

But the fire damage to her home had not destroyed everything - and investigators found a copy of the Pink Panther DVD, linking the trio to the NSU name and the murders.

On top of that, the suspected murder weapon - the Ceska pistol used in nine murders - was also found in the ruins.

Suddenly, it was revealed that a neo-Nazi cell of just three people had operated with impunity for 11 years, murdering 10 people - and had remained unknown to police.

Widespread public outrage followed, along with a parliamentary investigation which demanded tighter surveillance of neo-Nazi activities.

In July 2015 the German parliament, or Bundestag, passed a set of reforms giving greater power to the Verfassungsschutz (domestic intelligence agency) to avoid a repeat of the failures in the NSU investigation.

Co-ordinating the inquiry across several of Germany's 16 states was hindered by a patchwork of different intelligence and security bodies.

The were also key changes to the use of paid informants, known as "V-Leute," to provide information about potential threats to internal security.

But a second investigation on the same topic was also launched, and released its report in June 2017.

It cast doubt on the investigations since 2011 - notably suggesting that more than three people may have been involved with the NSU.

Some members continued to criticise the intelligence agency's use of informants.

A Left party politician on the committee, Petra Pau, told Deutsche Welle: "It's been proven that the NSU's core trio was surrounded by at least 40 informants".

"The federal [domestic intelligence agency] always claimed that it had no informants with the NSU - that's complete nonsense."

The Green's Irene Mihalic also told the broadcaster: "Our research makes more than clear that the neo-Nazis probably profit more from the informants than the security forces and, therefore, society at large."

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